About Sweden's national settings for energy communities
This presentation focuses on Sweden's national settings, affecting the emergence and functioning of energy communities. It briefly looks at its socio-economic conditions, energy retaled technical systems, such as its consumption and production, heating and electricity systems and other important factors, institutional settings, such as political goals and tax schemes, and Swedish actors, relevant for energy communities.
The information is taken from the NEWCOMERS deliverable, titled Description of Polycentric Settings in the Partner Countries.
Embeded interactive presentation
The topic of this presentation is the Swedish national settings for energy communities.
This is primarily connected to the economic aspects, policy and regulations aspect of the new clean energy communities.
The information in this presentation is taken from the NEWCOMERS project research activity, summarized in the deliverable titled Description of polycentric settings in the partner countries that you can find on this link: https://www.newcomersh2020.eu/upload/files/D2_2_newcomers_typology_of_new_clean_energy_communities_DEF.pdf
We developed the content of this presentation with the expert support by prof. Jenny Palm and dr. Katharina Reindl from the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University in Sweden, the NEWCOMERS project consortium partner.
We recommend you to first take a look at the introductory Content Item about the importance of national settings for the operations of energy communities.
2. CENTRAL PART – CONTENT
In this presentation, we offer only a selection of key data about Sweden that represent the national setting for the energy communities. You can find more detailed data here.
1. Socioeconomic conditions
Sweden has a population of around 10 000 000 citizens on an area of 410 000 km2. In Europe Sweden has the seventh highest GDP per capita. The unemployment rate of 7.1 % is slightly higher compared to the rest of the EU (EU has 6.2%).
2. Technical systems
a. Energy production and consumption
Sweden’s energy supply is characterised by high shares of hydropower, nuclear power and bioenergy. These account for 95% of the domestic energy production, making Sweden almost 70 % self-sufficient. Renewable energy, especially wind power, has increased in the last decade. Sweden is relatively energy intensive. Its biggest user is the industry sector.
b. The electricity system
Sweden has the second-lowest share of fossil fuels in electricity generation among all IEA member countries. Due to a decline in electricity demand, Sweden has become a net exporter. Most of Sweden’s electricity generation mix is low-carbon, with nuclear, hydro and wind being the largest sources.
c. The electricity grid and smart grids
The Swedish electricity market was deregulated in 1996. Sweden is also part of a common Nordic/Baltic electricity market. Sweden has a 15 000 km high voltage transmission network, running from the north where the hydropower and most wind power are located to the south where the consumption rates are the highest, which results in many bottlenecks. You can read more about that in the deliverable.
d. The heating systems
District heating supplies 58 % of the total heat demand, with most of the heating produced in co-generated plants, producing both heat and electricity. Space and water heating in building accounts for two thirds of the total energy consumption in the residential sector but is also a major share in commercial and public buildings.
e. Energy related emissions
Sweden's CO2 generation is the second lowest among IEA countries. Its emissions fell rapidly in 1970s when oil use was replaced with electricity from the, at that time, new nuclear power plants. The emissions have continued to decline during the 2000s but have stalled since 2013.
3. Institutional setting
a. Political goals and national energy agreements
In 2016, the majority of the parliament accepted the Framework Agreement on Energy Policy, with the goals of net-zero GHG emissions by 2045, improving the efficiency of energy use and making energy generation renewable. The future for nuclear power in Sweden was excluded from the Energy Policy Agreement. Read more about Sweden's policies in the paper linked.
b. Performance on EU 2020 energy targets
According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency current forecasts, Sweden is on the right track to reach goals set by the EU.
c. Electricity market, policy and law
The electricity market was deregulated in 1996. The customers are free to choose their own supplier and the price of electricity supply is not regulated. The responsibility for the security of electricity supply is divided between the market and the government.
d. Subsidies and tax schemes
Sweden has a long tradition of energy taxation. The CO2 tax is highest in the world. Some industries have tax reduction. Different investment aids and tax reduction programs are also in place to help with emission reduction.
e. Electricity prices
Sweden is divided into four bidding areas. North areas have a generation surplus, while south areas face a shortage. Price differences are expected to increase energy generation. Generally, electricity prices are low, especially for the industry.
a. Government and authorities
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy where the king has a representative role. The parliament (Riksdagen) is a single-chamber parliament. The Ministry of Environment and Energy is responsible for energy policies. Other important actors are the Swedish Energy Agency, The Swedish Energy Markets and other agencies, described in more detail in our deliverable.
b. Market actors
There are three largest network companies, who each have more than 800 000 customers. The smallest network companies have less than 1 000 customers. The companies are a mix of co-operative economic associations, privately owned companies and municipalities. The electricity generation is also dominated by three large generators.
c. Energy communities
There is no database over existing energy communities in Sweden and no umbrella organisation exists. Nevertheless, researches identified around 140 energy communities, most of them wind cooperatives, the second largest were eco-villages.
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